Reconsidering the olfactory and brain structures in Kallmann’s syndrome: new findings in the analysis of volumetry
Clinical Endocrinology, Volume n, Issue 19, December 2022
Background: Kallmann’s syndrome is characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and olfactory disorders. The complementary exams for evaluating of patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism are important for the diagnosis and management of these patients.
Methods: We performed a well-established olfactory Sniffin’Stick Test (SST) on 17 adult patients with KS and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate olfactory structures and further analysis by Freesurfer, a software for segmentation and volumetric evaluation of brain structures. We compared the Freesurfer results with 34 healthy patients matched for age and sex and performed correlations between the data studied.
Results: More than half of the patients with KS reported preserved smell but had olfactory disorders in the SST. In the MRI, 16 patients showed changes in the olfactory groove, the olfactory bulb-tract complex was altered in all of them, and 52% had symmetrical structural changes. Interestingly, the pituitary gland was normal in only 29%. Regarding correlations, symmetrical changes in the olfactory structures were related to anosmia in 100%, while asymmetric changes induced anosmia in only 50%(p: 0.0294). In Freesurfer’s assessment, patients with KS, compared to controls, had lower brainstem volume. In those with aplastic anterior olfactory sulcus, the brain stem volume was lower than in hypoplasia (p: 0.0333).
Conclusions: Olfactory assessment and MRI proved to be important auxiliary tools for the diagnosis and management of patients with KS. New studies are needed to confirm the decrease in brainstem volume found by the Freesurfer software in patients with KS. Further studies are needed to confirm the decrease in brainstem volume found by the Freesurfer software in patients with KS.
- Category: Brain
- Authors: KB Daniel, F Reis, S Appenzeller, L Rittner, CB Pinto, HM Garmes